The development of the electric arc furnace from the early days to today’s modern designs with ever-increasing capacities and extreme current loads became possible only by simultaneous developments in the production of graphite electrodes, suiting with their special characteristics the rapidly growing demand for improved electrical and mechanical properties.

The world-wide upward trend in electric steel production promoted extensive interest and research in arc melting processes in general and led to the construction and operation of modern arc furnaces of large volume capacities and, consequently, high and economical productivity.

Notwithstanding the quality of evolution in graphite electrodes to suit such conditions, it should, however, be remembered that any changes in the metallurgical, electrical and mechanical operating conditions can become of decisive influence on electrode behaviour. The new melting techniques in modern, large-volume, high-powered furnaces lead to quicker heating of the electrodes than in the small furnaces and require decisively improved resistance of the electrodes to thermal and mechanical shocks. The ever-more exacting demand in respect of electrode properties required intense scientific effort combined with the introduction and application of high-grade raw materials and new manufacturing techniques.

UHP graphite electrodes from Graphite Cova are produced on these lines and suit the operating conditions of modern arc furnaces by high mechanical stability, excellent thermal conductivity, low electrical resistance, factors which are of decisive importance for obtaining economical consumption rates.